Lapho Kusetshenziswa Amaphayiphu

Lapho Amaphayiphu Asetshenziswa khona: Yonke indawo!

08 Nov 2017 Ibhalwe nguGreg Johnson

Amaphayiphu angatholakala cishe noma kuphi namuhla: emakhaya ethu, ngaphansi komgwaqo, ezakhiweni zezohwebo nasezinkulungwaneni zezindawo ezingaphansi kwezitshalo zamandla nezamanzi, izigayo zamaphepha, izinto zokuhluza, izitshalo zamakhemikhali nezinye izindawo zezimboni nezingqalasizinda.
Imboni ye-valve inamahlombe abanzi ngempela, izingxenye zayo ziyahlukahluka kusuka ekusatshalalisweni kwamanzi kuya emandleni enyukliya kuye phezulu nakwezikawoyela negesi. Ngayinye yalezi zimboni zabasebenzisi bokugcina zisebenzisa izinhlobo ezithile eziyisisekelo zama-valve; kodwa-ke, imininingwane yokwakhiwa nezinto zokwakha zivame ukwehluka kakhulu. Nasi isampula:

IMISEBENZI YAMANZI
Emhlabeni wokusatshalaliswa kwamanzi, izingcindezi cishe zihlala ziphansi kakhulu kanti amazinga okushisa ahlala endaweni. Lawo maqiniso amabili okufaka isicelo avumela izinto eziningi zokuklanywa kwe-valve ezingatholakali kwimishini enenselelo eningi njengama-valve okushisa aphezulu. Izinga lokushisa elisezingeni eliphezulu lensizakalo yamanzi livumela ukusetshenziswa kwama-elastomer nezimpawu zenjoloba ezingafanele kwenye indawo. Lezi zinto ezithambile zivumela ama-valve wamanzi ukuba afakwe ngokuqinile ukuvala amadriphu.

Okunye ukucatshangelwa kumavaluva wensizakalo yamanzi ukukhetha ezintweni zokwakha. Izinsimbi ze-cast kanye ne-ductile zisetshenziswa kakhulu ezinhlelweni zamanzi, ikakhulukazi imigqa emikhulu engaphandle yobubanzi. Olayini abancane kakhulu bangaphathwa kahle ngezinto zokwakha i-valve zethusi.

Izingcindezi ezibonwa ama-valve wensimbi yamanzi zivame ukuba ngaphansi kwama-psi angama-200. Lokhu kusho ukuthi ukwakheka kwengcindezi ephakeme ngokujiya akudingeki. Lokho sekushiwo, kunezimo lapho kwakhiwa khona ama-valve wamanzi ukusingatha izingcindezi eziphakeme, kuze kufike ku-300 psi. Lezi zinhlelo zokusebenza zivame ukuba semiseleni emide eduze nomthombo wengcindezi. Kwesinye isikhathi amaphayiphu amanzi anengcindezi ephezulu nawo atholakala ezindaweni ezinengcindezi ephezulu edamini elide.

I-American Water Works Association (i-AWWA) ikhiphe imininingwane ebandakanya izinhlobo eziningi zama-valve nama-actuator asetshenziselwa ukufaka izicelo zamanzi.

WASTEWATER
Uhlangothi lweflip lwamanzi ahlanzekile aphuzwayo angena esikhungweni noma esakhiweni amanzi angcolile noma okukhipha indle. Le migqa iqoqa wonke amanzi omanzi nokuqina bese ibaqondisa esikhungweni sokuhlanza indle. Lezi zindawo zokwelapha zifaka amapayipi amaningi anengcindezi ephansi kanye nama-valve okwenza "umsebenzi wawo ongcolile". Izidingo zamaphayiphu wamanzi angcolile ezimweni eziningi zivulekile kakhulu kunezidingo zensizakalo yamanzi ahlanzekile. Isango lensimbi namaphayiphu okuhlola yizona zinketho ezithandwa kakhulu kulolu hlobo lwensizakalo. Ama-valve ajwayelekile kule sevisi akhiwe ngokuya ngemininingwane ye-AWWA.

IMBONI YAMANDLA
Amandla amaningi kagesi akhiqizwa e-United States akhiqizwa ezitshalweni ze-steam kusetshenziswa izinsalela zamandla ezimbiwa kanye nama-turbines anejubane elikhulu. Ukubheka emuva ikhava yesikhungo samandla samanje kungaveza umbono wezinhlelo zamapayipi ezinengcindezi ephezulu. Le migqa eyinhloko ibaluleke kakhulu kunqubo yokukhiqizwa kwamandla kagesi.

Ama-valve esango ahlala eyindlela eyinhloko yokutshala ugesi kuzinhlelo zokusebenza / zokuvala, yize inhloso ekhethekile, kutholakala nemithambo yegilavu ​​ye-Y-pattern globe. Amaphayiphu ebhola asebenza kahle kakhulu, asebenza kanzima athola ukuthandwa ngabanye abaklami bezinjini zokuphehla ugesi futhi bayaqala ukungena kuleli zwe elake lalawulwa nge-valve.

I-Metallurgy ibaluleke kakhulu kuma-valve kuzicelo zamandla, ikakhulukazi lezo ezisebenza ebangeni lokucindezela nelokushisa kakhulu. I-F91, F92, C12A, kanye nama-alloys e-Inconel amaningana nensimbi engagqwali asetshenziswa kakhulu ezitshalweni zamandla zanamuhla. Amakilasi engcindezi afaka phakathi u-1500, 2500 kanti kwezinye izimo angama-4500. Isimo sokuguquguquka kwezitshalo zamandla eziphakeme (lezo ezisebenza kuphela njengoba kudingeka) futhi sibeka ubunzima obukhulu kuma-valve namapayipi, okudinga ukwakhiwa okuqinile ukuphatha inhlanganisela eyedlulele yokuhamba ngebhayisikili, izinga lokushisa kanye ingcindezi.
Ngaphezu kokufakwa kwe-steam okuyinhloko, izitshalo zamandla zilayishwa ngamapayipi asizayo, agcwele inqwaba yamasango, imbulunga, isheke, uvemvane namavalvu ebhola.

Izikhungo zamandla enuzi zisebenza kumthetho ofanayo we-steam / high-speed turbine. Umehluko omkhulu ukuthi esitshalweni samandla enuzi, umusi wenziwa ukushisa okuvela enqubeni yefission. Ama-valve ezitshalo zamandla enyukliya ayafana nabazala bawo ababaswe ngezinsalela, ngaphandle kozalo lwabo kanye nemfuneko eyengeziwe yokuthembeka ngokuphelele. Amaphayiphu enuzi enziwa ngamazinga aphezulu ngokwedlulele, imibhalo efanelekile nokuhlolwa igcwalisa amakhulukhulu amakhasi.

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UKUKHIQIZWA KWAMAFUTHA NEGESI
Imithombo kawoyela negesi nezindawo zokukhiqiza zingabasebenzisi abanzima bamaphayiphu, kufaka phakathi ama-valve amaningi asindayo. Yize ama-gusher kawoyela akhipha amakhulu amamitha emoyeni ayisakwazi ukwenzeka, isithombe sikhombisa ingcindezi engaba khona kawoyela negesi engaphansi komhlaba. Kungakho amakhanda emithombo noma izihlahla zikaKhisimusi zibekwa phezulu ocingweni olude lwepayipi lomthombo. Le mihlangano, inhlanganisela yama-valve nokufakwa okukhethekile, yenzelwe ukusingatha izingcindezi ezingaphezulu kwe-10,000 psi. Yize kungavamile ukutholakala emithonjeni eyembiwa emhlabathini kulezi zinsuku, izingcindezi eziphakeme ngokweqile zivame ukutholakala emithonjeni ejulile yasolwandle.

Idizayini yemishini ye-Wellhead imbozwe yimininingwane ye-API efana ne-6A, Incazelo ye-Wellhead ne-Christmas Tree Equipment. Amaphayiphu ahlanganiswe ku-6A enzelwe izingcindezi eziphakeme ngokweqile kepha amazinga okushisa aphansi. Izihlahla eziningi zikaKhisimusi zinama-valve esango kanye nama-valve akhethekile we-globe abizwa ngokuthi ama-chokes. Ukuminyaniswa kusetshenziselwa ukulawula ukugeleza okuvela emthonjeni.

Ngokungeziwe emithonjeni yemithombo uqobo, izindawo eziningi ezisizayo zigcwalisa insimu kawoyela noma yegesi. Imishini yokucubungula ukwelapha kuqala uwoyela noma igesi idinga amavalvu amaningi. Lawa ma-valve ngokuvamile ayinsimbi yensimbi ekalwe ngamakilasi aphansi.

Ngezikhathi ezithile, kunoketshezi olonakalisayo kakhulu — i-hydrogen sulfide — olutholakala emfudlaneni kaphethiloli ongahluziwe. Le nto, ebizwa nangokuthi igesi emuncu, ingabulala. Ukunqoba izinselelo zegesi emuncu, kufanele kulandelwe izinto ezikhethekile noma amasu wokucubungula izinto ngokuya ngemininingwane ye-NACE International MR0175.

INDUSTRY INDUSTRY
Amasistimu wepayipi ama-rigs kawoyela aphesheya kwezilwandle nezindawo zokukhiqiza aqukethe inqwaba yamaphayiphu akhelwe ukucaciswa okuningi okuhlukile ukubhekana nezinselelo ezahlukahlukene zokulawulwa kokugeleza. Lezi zinsiza ziqukethe namaluphu ohlelo lokulawula ahlukahlukene kanye namadivayisi okusiza kwengcindezi.

Ezakhiweni zokukhiqiza uwoyela, inhliziyo egudlukayo yiyona ndlela yangempela yokubhoboza uwoyela noma igesi. Yize kungenjalo ngaso sonke isikhathi epulatifomu uqobo, izinhlelo eziningi zokukhiqiza zisebenzisa izihlahla zikaKhisimusi nezinhlelo zamapayipi ezisebenza ekujuleni okungenamusa okungamamitha ayi-10 000 noma ngaphezulu. Le mishini yokukhiqiza yakhelwe emazingeni amaningi aqatha e-American Petroleum Institute (API) futhi abhekiswe ezinkambisweni eziningi ezinconyiwe ze-API (RPs).

Ezingxenyeni eziningi ezinkulu zikawoyela, kusetshenziswa izinqubo ezengeziwe koketshezi oluhlaza oluvela ekhanda lomthombo. Lokhu kufaka hlukanisa amanzi kuma-hydrocarbon nokuhlukanisa igesi noketshezi lwegesi yemvelo emfudlaneni oketshezi. Lezi zinhlelo zokupaka izihlahla zikaKhisimusi zangemuva kukaKhisimusi ngokuvamile zakhiwe kuma-American Society of Mechanical Engineers B31.3 amapayipi wamapayipi anama-valve aklanywe ngokuya ngemininingwane ye-API valve efana ne-API 594, API 600, API 602, API 608 ne-API 609.

Ezinye zalezi zinhlelo zingaqukatha isango le-API 6D, amabhola nama-valve wokuhlola. Njengoba noma yimaphi amapayipi asepulatifomu noma umkhumbi wokubhola angaphakathi esikhungweni, izidingo eziqinile zokusebenzisa ama-valve we-API 6D wamapayipi azisebenzi. Yize izinhlobo ze-valve eziningi zisetshenziswa kulezi zinhlelo zamapayipi, uhlobo lwe-valve oluthandayo yi-valve yebhola.

Amapayipi
Yize amapayipi amaningi efihlekile ekubukeni, ukutholakala kwawo kuvame ukubonakala. Izimpawu ezincane ezisho ukuthi "ipayipi le-petroleum" yinkomba eyodwa esobala yokuba khona kwepayipi lokuhamba ngaphansi komhlaba. La mapayipi anama-valve amaningi abalulekile kuwo wonke ubude bawo. Amaphayiphu wokuvala amapayipi aphuthumayo atholakala ngezikhathi njengoba kuchazwe ngamazinga, amakhodi nemithetho. La ma-valve asebenzela umsebenzi obalulekile wokuhlukanisa ingxenye yepayipi uma kwenzeka kuvuza noma lapho kudingeka ukulungiswa.

Okunye futhi okusakazeke emzileni wepayipi kukhona lapho kutholakala khona ulayini kusuka emhlabathini nokutholakala kolayini kutholakala. Lezi ziteshi ziyikhaya lemishini yokwethula "ingulube", equkethe amadivayisi afakwe emapayipini ukuze kuhlolwe noma kuhlanzwe ulayini. Lezi ziteshi zokwethula izingulube zivame ukuba nama-valve amaningana, kungaba izinhlobo zamasango noma zebhola. Onke ama-valve asohlelweni lwamapayipi kufanele abe yitheku eligcwele (ukuvulwa ngokugcwele) ukuvumela ukudlula kwezingulube.

Amapayipi nawo adinga amandla okulwa nokungqubuzana kwepayipi nokugcina ingcindezi nokuhamba kolayini. Iziteshi zokucindezela noma zokupompa ezibukeka njengezinguqulo ezincane zesitshalo senqubo ngaphandle kwemibhoshongo emide yokuqhekeka kuyasetshenziswa. Lezi ziteshi zinezinqwaba zamasango, amabhola namaphayiphu okuhlola amapayipi.
Amapayipi ngokwawo aklanywe ngokuya ngamazinga namakhodi ahlukahlukene, kuyilapho ama-valve wamapayipi elandela ama-API 6D Pipeline Valves.
Kukhona namapayipi amancane angena ezindlini nasezinhlakeni zezohwebo. Le migqa inikeza amanzi negesi futhi ivikelwe ama-valve wokuvala.
Omasipala abakhulu, ikakhulukazi engxenyeni esenyakatho ye-United States, bahlinzeka ngomphunga ngezidingo zokushisa zamakhasimende ezentengiselwano. Lezi zintambo zokuhambisa umusi zifakwe ama-valve ahlukahlukene ukulawula nokulawula ukunikezwa kwe-steam. Yize uketshezi kungumusi, izingcindezi namazinga okushisa aphansi kunalawo atholakala ekukhiqizweni kwesitimu samandla kagesi. Izinhlobo ezinhlobonhlobo zama-valve zisetshenziswa kule sevisi, yize i-valve valve ehloniphekile iseyinketho ethandwayo.

IZICWANGCISO ZOKUCHAZA NEZE-PETROCHEMICAL
Ama-valve wokucwenga enza i-akhawunti yokusetshenziswa okuningi kwe-valve yezimboni kunanoma iyiphi enye ingxenye ye-valve. Izinto zokucwenga zihlala kuzo zombili izikhukhula ezonakalisayo futhi kwezinye izimo, amazinga okushisa aphezulu.
Lezi zinto zilawula ukuthi ama-valve akhiwa kanjani ngokuya ngemininingwane ye-API valve design efana ne-API 600 (gate valve), API 608 (ball valves) kanye ne-API 594 (check valves). Ngenxa yensizakalo enokhahlo etholwa yilawa ma-valve amaningi, kuvame ukudingeka imali eyengeziwe yokugqwala. Lesi sibonelelo siboniswa ngosayizi abakhulu bodonga abachazwe kumadokhumenti e-API.

Cishe lonke uhlobo lwe-valve olukhulu lungatholakala ngobuningi kusihlungi esikhulu esijwayelekile. I-valve esendaweni yonke iseyinkosi yegquma enabantu abaningi, kepha ama-valve ajika ngekota athatha inani elikhulu ngokwandayo lesabelo sabo semakethe. Imikhiqizo yama-quarter-turn eyenza ukungena ngempumelelo kule mboni (nayo eyayikade ilawulwa yimikhiqizo eqondile) ifaka phakathi ukusebenza okuphezulu kathathu kwamaveluvemvane e-offset namavalvu ebhola ahleli ngensimbi.

Isango elijwayelekile, amagilavu ​​omhlaba kanye nama-valve wokuhlola asatholakala eningi, futhi ngenxa yenhliziyo yokwakheka kwawo kanye nomnotho wezinto zokukhiqiza, ngeke kusheshe kunyamalale.
Izilinganiso zengcindezi yama-valve wokuhlanza zisebenzisa i-gamut kusuka ku-Class 150 kuya ku-Class 1500, nge-Class 300 ethandwa kakhulu.
Izinsimbi ze-carbon ezingenalutho, njengebanga le-WCB (cast) kanye no-A-105 (okwenziwe) yizinto ezithandwa kakhulu ezichazwe futhi zisetshenziswe kuma-valve wensizakalo yokuhluza. Izicelo eziningi zenqubo yokucwenga zicindezela imingcele yokushisa ephezulu yama-carbon steels, futhi ama-alloys okushisa okuphezulu acacisiwe kulezi zinhlelo zokusebenza. Okuthandwa kakhulu yilezi zinsimbi ze-chrome / moly ezifana no-1-1 / 4% Cr, 2-1 / 4% Cr, 5% Cr no-9% Kr. Izinsimbi ezingenazinsimbi nama-alloys enele-nickel nakho kuyasetshenziswa kwezinye izinqubo zokuhlanza ezinzima.

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AMAKHEMIKHALI
Imboni yamakhemikhali ingumsebenzisi omkhulu wama-valve wazo zonke izinhlobo nezinto zokwakha. Ukusuka ezitshalweni ezincane zamaqoqo kuya ezinkampanini ezinkulu ze-petrochemical ezitholakala eGulf Coast, ama-valve ayingxenye enkulu yezinhlelo zamapayipi enqubo yamakhemikhali.

Izicelo eziningi ezinqubweni zamakhemikhali ziphansi kwengcindezi kunezinqubo eziningi zokucwenga nokukhiqizwa kwamandla. Izigaba zengcindezi ezithandwa kakhulu zamakhemikhali ezitshalo zamakhemikhali kanye namapayipi ngamaClass 150 kanye nama-300. Izitshalo zamakhemikhali nazo zibe ngumshayeli omkhulu kunabo bonke abathatha amasheya emakethe ama-valve ebhola aye alwa nawo kusuka kuma-valve aqondile eminyakeni engama-40 edlule. I-valve yebhola eqinile, ne-zero-leoffge shutoff yayo, ilungele kahle izicelo eziningi zezitshalo zamakhemikhali. Usayizi ohlangene we-valve yebhola uyisici esidumile futhi.
Kusekhona ezinye izitshalo zamakhemikhali nezinqubo zezitshalo lapho kukhethwa khona ama-valve aqondile. Kulezi zimo, ama-valve adumile e-API 603 aklanywe, anezindonga ezincane kanye nezisindo ezilula, imvamisa isango noma i-valve yomhlaba ekhethiwe. Ukulawulwa kwamanye amakhemikhali nakho kufezwa ngempumelelo ngama-diaphragm noma i-pinch valves.
Ngenxa yesimo esonakalisayo samakhemikhali amaningi nezinqubo zokwenza amakhemikhali, ukukhetha izinto kubalulekile. Impahla ye-defacto ibanga le-316 / 316L yensimbi engagqwali ye-austenitic. Le nto isebenza kahle ukulwa nokugqwala okuvela kuketshezi oluningi olubi kwesinye isikhathi.

Kwezinye izinhlelo zokusebenza eziqinile ezonakalisayo, kudingeka ukuvikelwa okwengeziwe. Amanye amabanga asebenza kahle wensimbi engagqwali ye-austenitic, afana no-317, 347 no-321 avame ukukhethwa kulezi zimo. Amanye ama-alloys asetshenziswa ngezikhathi ezithile ukulawula uketshezi lwamakhemikhali afaka iMonel, Alloy 20, Inconel ne-17-4 PH.

Ukuhlukaniswa KWE-LNG NEGESI
Kokubili igesi yemvelo engamanzi (i-LNG) nezinqubo ezidingekayo zokuhlukaniswa kwegesi zincike emapayipini amaningi. Lezi zinhlelo zokusebenza zidinga ama-valve angasebenza emazingeni okushisa aphansi kakhulu we-cryogenic. Imboni ye-LNG, ekhula ngokushesha e-United States, ibheke njalo ukuthuthukisa nokwenza ngcono inqubo yokuchithwa kwegesi. Kuze kube manje, amapayipi nama-valve sekukukhulu kakhulu futhi kuphakanyiswe nezidingo zengcindezi.

Lesi simo sidinge ukuthi abakhiqizi be-valve bathuthukise imiklamo yokuhlangabezana nemingcele eqinile. Ama-valves we-quarter-turn ball namavemvane athandwa kakhulu kusevisi ye-LNG, enezinto ezingama-316ss [insimbi engagqwali] into ethandwa kakhulu. I-ANSI Class 600 iyisilingi ejwayelekile yengcindezi yezinhlelo zokusebenza eziningi ze-LNG. Yize imikhiqizo yekota-turn iyizinhlobo zama-valve ezithandwa kakhulu, isango, imbulunga nama-valve wokuhlola angatholakala nasezitshalweni.

Insizakalo yokuhlukanisa igesi ifaka ukuhlukanisa igesi ezintweni zayo eziyisisekelo. Isibonelo, izindlela zokwehlukanisa umoya zikhiqiza i-nitrogen, oxygen, helium namanye ama-trace gases. Isimo esiphansi kakhulu sokushisa kwenqubo sisho ukuthi ama-valve amaningi we-cryogenic ayadingeka.

Zombili izitshalo zokuhlukanisa i-LNG negesi zinama-valve anezinga lokushisa eliphansi okufanele lihlale lisebenza kulezi zimo ze-cryogenic. Lokhu kusho ukuthi uhlelo lokupakisha i-valve kufanele luphakanyiswe kude nomswakama osezingeni eliphansi ngokusetshenziswa kwekholomu yegesi noma yokugoqa. Le kholomu yegesi ivimbela uketshezi ekwakheni i-ice ball ezungeze indawo yokupakisha, okungavimbela isiqu se-valve ekujikeni noma ekukhuphukeni.

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IZAKHIWO ZOKUHWEBA
Izakhiwo zezohwebo zisizungezile kepha ngaphandle kokuthi sinake kakhulu njengoba zakhiwe, asinalo nhlobo ulwazi ngobuningi bemithambo eketshezi efihlwe ngaphakathi kwezindonga zawo zamatshe, ingilazi nensimbi.

Isici esivamile cishe kuzo zonke izakhiwo ngamanzi. Zonke lezi zinhlaka ziqukethe izindlela ezahlukahlukene zamapayipi ezithwala inhlanganisela eningi ye-hydrogen / oksijini eyakhiwe ngohlobo lwamanzi aphuzwayo, amanzi angcolile, amanzi ashisayo, amanzi ampunga nokuvikelwa komlilo.

Ngokombono wokusinda kwesakhiwo, izinhlelo zomlilo zibaluleke kakhulu. Ukuvikelwa komlilo ezakhiweni kucishe kudliwe umhlaba wonke futhi kugcwaliswe ngamanzi ahlanzekile. Ukuze izinhlelo zamanzi omlilo zisebenze kahle, kufanele zithembeke, zibe nengcindezi eyanele futhi zitholakale kalula kuso sonke isakhiwo. Lezi zinhlelo zenzelwe ukunika amandla ngokuzenzakalela esimweni somlilo.
Amabhilidi aphakeme adinga insizakalo yokucindezela amanzi efanayo ezitezi ezingaphezulu njengoba izitezi ezingezansi ngakho-ke kufanele kusetshenziswe amaphampu acindezela kakhulu namapayipi ukuze amanzi abheke phezulu. Izinhlelo zamapayipi zivame ukuba zekilasi 300 noma 600, kuya ngobude besakhiwo. Zonke izinhlobo zama-valve zisetshenziswa kulezi zinhlelo zokusebenza; kodwa-ke, ukwakheka kwama-valve kufanele kuvunyelwe yi-Underwriters Laboratories noma i-Factory Mutual ukuthola insizakalo eyinhloko yezicishamlilo.

Izigaba ezifanayo nezinhlobo zama-valve ezisetshenziselwa ama-valve service service zisetshenziselwa ukusatshalaliswa kwamanzi okuphuza, yize inqubo yokugunyazwa ingekho eqinile.
Izinhlelo zokupholisa umoya ezitholakala ezakhiweni ezinkulu zebhizinisi ezifana nezakhiwo zamahhovisi, amahhotela nezibhedlela zivame ukuba sezindaweni eziphakathi. Zineyunithi enkulu yokubanda noma i-boiler ukupholisa noma ukushisa uketshezi okusetshenziselwa ukudlulisa ukushisa okubandayo noma okuphezulu. Lezi zinhlelo zivame ukuphatha amafriji afana no-R-134a, i-hydro-fluorocarbon, noma esimweni sezinhlelo ezinkulu zokushisa, umusi. Ngenxa yobukhulu be-butterfly nama-valves ebhola, lezi zinhlobo sezithandwa ezinhlelweni ze-HVAC chiller.

Ngasohlangothini lwe-steam, amanye ama-valve we-quarter-turn asebenzise ukungena, kodwa onjiniyela abaningi bamapayipi basencike esangweni eliqondile nakuma-valve womhlaba, ikakhulukazi uma ukubhobhoza kudinga ukuphela kwe-butt-weld. Kulezi zinsiza ezilinganiselayo zensimbi, insimbi ithathe indawo yensimbi yensimbi ngenxa yokuqina kwensimbi.

Ezinye izinhlelo zokushisa zisebenzisa amanzi ashisayo esikhundleni somusi njengoketshezi lokudlulisa. Lezi zinhlelo zisebenza kahle ngama-valve wethusi noma wensimbi. Ibhola eliqinile elihlala ikota namavalvu uvemvane athandwa kakhulu, yize eminye imiklamo eqondile isasetshenziswa.

ISIPHETHO
Yize ubufakazi bezicelo zama-valve okukhulunywe ngazo kule ndatshana bungase bungabonakali ngesikhathi sohambo oluya eStarbucks noma endlini kagogo, amanye ama-valve abaluleke kakhulu ahlala eseduze. Kukhona ngisho ama-valve enjinini yemoto asetshenziselwe ukufika kulezo zindawo njengalezo ezikucarburetor ezilawula ukuhamba kukaphethiloli kungena enjini nakulowo osenjinini olawula ukuhamba kukaphethiloli ungene kuma-piston kuphume futhi. Futhi uma lawo ma-valve engasondele ngokwanele ezimpilweni zethu zansuku zonke, cabanga iqiniso lokuthi izinhliziyo zethu zishaya njalo ngamadivayisi amane abalulekile wokulawula ukugeleza.

Lesi esinye nje isibonelo seqiniso lokuthi: ama-valve akuyo yonke indawo. VM
Ingxenye II yale ndatshana ihlanganisa izimboni ezengeziwe lapho kusetshenziswa khona ama-valve. Iya ku-www.valvemagazine.com ukuze ufunde nge-pulp nephepha, ukufaka izicelo zasolwandle, amadamu namandla we-hydroelectric, i-solar, i-iron nensimbi, i-aerospace, i-geothermal, ne-craft brewing ne-distilling.

UGGG JOHNSON ungumongameli we-United Valve (www.unitedvalve.com) eHouston. Ungumhleli onikelayo kuVALVE Magazine, usihlalo owedlule woMkhandlu Wokulungisa I-Valve futhi oyilungu lebhodi le-VRC njengamanje. Ubuye abe yilungu leKomidi lezeMfundo noQeqesho le-VMA, uyisekela likasihlalo weKomidi Lezokuxhumana le-VMA futhi ungumongameli owedlule we-Manufacturers Standardization Society. 


Isikhathi Iposi: Sep-29-2020

Isicelo

Underground pipeline

Ipayipi elingaphansi komhlaba

Irrigation System

Uhlelo Lokunisela

Water Supply System

Uhlelo Lokuphakelwa Kwamanzi

Equipment supplies

Izinsiza kusebenza